Spirituality and Resilience Assessment Packet (SRA) combines two
research instruments, using their self-scoring formats. The instruments
were developed and validated for research in positive psychology,
health psychology, and peace psychology. They are:
Inventory of Positive Psychological Attitudes (IPPA). The IPPA (Kass, 1998b; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991)
measures a resilient worldview. It is a 32-item strengths-based
instrument, sensitive to cultural differences, that has been used in
psychoeducational programs and research (Hales, 2009; Kass, 1998b; Simmons & Lehmann, 2012).
Using Likert scales with opposing statements, respondents characterize
their attitudes and behaviors during heightened stress. One sub-scale
taps Self-Confidence during Stress (SCDS). Rather than focusing
strictly on self-efficacy, SCDS also taps confidence that help will be
received from others. The second sub-scale assesses Life Purpose and
Satisfaction during stressful situations (LPS). It taps both
existential and personal dimensions of meaning. Together, the
sub-scales assess the resilient worldview Confidence in Life and Self
(CLS). Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust
(Cronbach’s α coefficients: SCDS = .86; LPS = .91; CLS = .93) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991)).
Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT). The INSPIRIT (Kass, 1995; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, & Benson, 1991) measures key elements of secure existential attachment. This 7-item
measure is responsive to diverse belief systems (theist, transpersonal
non-theist, and secular humanist). It has been used in numerous studies
of spirituality and meditation practice (Easterling, Gamino, Sewell, & Stirman, 2000; Lin et al., 2009; McBride, Arthur, Brooks, & Pilkington, 1998; Okozi & Foley, 2008; VandeCreek, Ayres, & Bassham, 1995; Watkins van Asselt & Baldo Senstock, 2009), and textbooks in the psychology of religion and spirituality (Hill & Hood, 1999; Kelley, 1995). Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust (Cronbach’s α = .90) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, et al., 1991)).
researchers have begun to use the self-scoring formats of the SRA
(IPPA & INSPIRIT) during interventions that emphasize self-directed
learning and client self-assessment. However, in most cases, the
Research Format of the IPPA and INSPIRIT is more suitable for
research. In this format, individual questions are mixed randomly,
with reverse order of some Likert scales, precluding self-scoring and
increasing reliability of response sets.
The SRA presented on this website enables you to review the content of each instrument.
you would like to conduct research with the Research Format of either
instrument, send an email request to the Institute for Contemplative
Education (resilientworldview.org). Identify the institution where you
work, your research background, and your specific research project.
established professionals and graduate students conducting research
projects, there is no fee for use of these measures. They are
available upon request, with the following provisions: 1) researchers
using the IPPA, INSPIRIT, or SRA will send copies of published results
to the institute; 2) all copies of the instruments used during research
will include copyright notations (as found on the template); 3)
published papers will include appropriate citations.