For Social Science Researchers

The Spirituality and Resilience Assessment Packet (SRA) combines two research instruments, using their self-scoring formats.  The instruments were developed and validated for research in positive psychology, health psychology, and peace psychology.  They are:


Inventory of Positive Psychological Attitudes (IPPA). The IPPA (Kass, 1998b; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991)  measures a resilient worldview.  It is a 32-item strengths-based instrument, sensitive to cultural differences, that has been used in psychoeducational programs and research (Hales, 2009; Kass, 1998b; Simmons & Lehmann, 2012).  Using Likert scales with opposing statements, respondents characterize their attitudes and behaviors during heightened stress.  One sub-scale taps Self-Confidence during Stress (SCDS).  Rather than focusing strictly on self-efficacy, SCDS also taps confidence that help will be received from others.  The second sub-scale assesses Life Purpose and Satisfaction during stressful situations (LPS).  It taps both existential and personal dimensions of meaning.  Together, the sub-scales assess the resilient worldview Confidence in Life and Self (CLS).  Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust (Cronbach’s α coefficients:  SCDS = .86; LPS = .91; CLS = .93) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991)).


Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT). The INSPIRIT (Kass, 1995; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, & Benson, 1991) measures key elements of secure existential attachment.  This 7-item measure is responsive to diverse belief systems (theist, transpersonal non-theist, and secular humanist).  It has been used in numerous studies of spirituality and meditation practice (Easterling, Gamino, Sewell, & Stirman, 2000; Lin et al., 2009; McBride, Arthur, Brooks, & Pilkington, 1998; Okozi & Foley, 2008; VandeCreek, Ayres, & Bassham, 1995; Watkins van Asselt & Baldo Senstock, 2009), and textbooks in the psychology of religion and spirituality (Hill & Hood, 1999; Kelley, 1995).  Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust (Cronbach’s α = .90) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, et al., 1991)).


Some researchers have begun to use the self-scoring formats of the SRA (IPPA & INSPIRIT) during interventions that emphasize self-directed learning and client self-assessment.  However, in most cases, the Research Format of the IPPA and INSPIRIT is more suitable for research.  In this format, individual questions are mixed randomly, with reverse order of some Likert scales, precluding self-scoring and increasing reliability of response sets.


The SRA presented on this website enables you to review the content of each instrument. 

If you would like to conduct research with the Research Format of either instrument, send an email request to the Institute for Contemplative Education (  Identify the institution where you work, your research background, and your specific research project. 



For established professionals and graduate students conducting research projects, there is no fee for use of these measures.  They are available upon request, with the following provisions: 1) researchers using the IPPA, INSPIRIT, or SRA will send copies of published results to the institute; 2) all copies of the instruments used during research will include copyright notations (as found on the template); 3) published papers will include appropriate citations.